- 1.1. Identification numbers
1.2. Governing bodies and control devices
+ 1.3. Switches of lighting, turns, washer and glass cleaner
1.4. Catalytic converter
1.5. System of ventilation and air conditioning
1.6. System of climate control
1.7. System cruise control
1.8. Mechanical transmission
1.9. Automatic transmission
+ 1.10. Front seats
1.11. Arrangement and power of bulbs
+ 1.12. Safety locks and electric chains
1.13. Bases of safe operation of the car
1.14. Wheels and tires
1.15. Angles of installation of wheels
+ 2. Maintenance
+ 3. Engines
+ 4. Heating, ventilation
+ 5. Fuel system
+ 6. Exhaust system
+ 7. Systems of start, ignition
+ 8. Transmissions
+ 9. Coupling, shaft
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Suspension bracket
+ 12. Steering
+ 13. Body
+ 14. Electric equipment
Observance of recommendations below substantially will increase your safety on roads and will allow to keep the vehicle in good repair.
Competent technology of driving of the car also depends on the correct landing of the driver. The negligent, weakened landing (in particular when the driver puts out an elbow of the left hand in a window or leans a body on the left door, and the steering wheel holds with one hand) does not provide constant readiness of the driver for bystry and accurate actions in case of sudden change of a situation on the road. The correct landing – the driver rather densely leans on a seatback, legs at a full vyzhim on a pedal are extended not completely, and both hands which are slightly bent in elbow joints are located on a steering wheel. Position of a body has to be steady, but not strained – it prevents bystry exhaustion.
You drive easy, holding slightly a wheel. Do not squeeze it as a vice, to a pobeleniye of fingers – the excessive effort and nervous tension only tire an organism. Take for the rule at the movement on direct sections of roads to hold the steering wheel in the range from without ten two to without fifteen three corresponding to the provision of hour hands. It gives the chance to conduct the car without any efforts and to react instantly to change of a situation on the road.
Clearness of action of the driver in driving substantially depends on a dress code, especially in winter time. The clothes have to be easy, free and convenient. It is not recommended to apply ski or climbing boots, valenoks, high fur boots. Their bulkiness complicates bystry management of pedals. Management of pedals and any footwear high-heeled complicates.
Preparation of the car for the movement
Before departure from a garage or from the parking lot check technical condition of the car. 8–10 minutes spent for it can offset with interest all losses of time for elimination of malfunctions in way and will increase your safety. For this purpose:
1. Check and bring to norm air pressure in tires. Pressure difference in tires on only 0,2-0,3 kgfs/cm2 worsens controllability of the car, and when braking can lead to its drift.
2. Check oil level in a case of the engine and if necessary bring it to norm.
3. Check levels of the cooling, brake and washing liquids and if necessary bring them to norm. Tanks with these liquids are made of translucent plastic that allows to conduct visual control of level.
4. Check serviceability of signaling devices and lamps of external light devices.
5. Check work of screen wipers and washers of glasses, the parking brake.
6. Examine the parking lot of the car. Existence of traces of oils and operational liquids under the car testifies to leakage of its knots and units. In this case it is necessary to reveal and remove the cause of their emergence.
7. At the movement from the parking check serviceability of working brakes.
Tactics of driving of the car
Tactics of driving of the car is an ability to choose the correct mode of the movement where the main indicator is speed. Incorrectly chosen high-speed mode appears the most frequent reason of the road accidents. Complexity of a right choice of speed of the movement is in what demands the simultaneous accounting of different factors or, in other words, complex assessment of conditions in which there is a movement. Ability of the driver to completely cover all set of the mobile and motionless objects important from the point of view of traffic safety, and at the same time to exclude from the attention everything the objects which are not relating to the movement got to the field of his sight (for example, the billboards remote from the road of the building etc.), are the main condition of the correct tactics of driving of the car. With the same purpose it is not recommended to hang or fix in zones of wind and back glasses and on the dashboard the amulets, souvenirs, etc. which are reducing the review of the driver and in addition distracting not only his attention, but also attention of other participants of the movement. At the same time it is necessary to remember that with increase in speed of the movement the field of vision of the driver decreases. So, the field of vision is equal in rest 120 °, at a speed of 30 km/h – 100 °, and at a speed of 100 km/h – 40 ° ("tunnel sight").
Speed of the movement cannot be defined at all by whether you hurry or your passengers. It is necessary to acquire firmly it and even in the emergencies to choose speed only according to a situation. In this regard very important quality of the driver is the endurance allowing to keep calm and not to give in to someone's wishes to go quicker, despite of a concrete situation.
After a long break in driving (the winter period, a disease, a business trip, etc.) some time for restoration of skills is required. In this regard execute several training departures on sections of roads with the minimum loading by transport.
Be a good psychologist and critically you treat the mistakes driving. Only self-criticism and introspection will help you to avoid repetition of similar mistakes further.
At the movement through pools it is necessary to be extremely attentive as they can hide holes and potholes on which it is possible to damage disks of wheels or a detail of a suspension bracket. In case you move on the unfamiliar road, it is better to pass other transport forward, and how it will overcome a pool, it will be possible to judge a condition of the road. If there is no such opportunity, go out of the car and any subject (a stick, a bar etc.) measure a pool on an estimated trajectory of the movement. Carry out the movement through a pool at minimum possible speed. Dashing overcoming pools, as a rule, comes to an end with hit of moisture on elements of system of ignition and an engine stop.
The movement in rainy weather
Moisture on elements of system of ignition can get and stop the engine at movement along the road to time of a heavy rain. A good and well-tried remedy for prevention of an otsyrevaniye of elements of system of ignition is their preliminary processing by water-repellent medicines like Unisma or "Avtosmazka of VTV-1" in aerosol package or their foreign analogs.
Show special attention and care the first minutes after the beginning of a rain as the moistened dust on a paving forms the soap film which is sharply reducing coupling of tires with the road.
Regularly during the movement you carry out easy snubbing of the car to dry brakes as efficiency of crude brakes sharply falls.
During overtaking include a windshield screen wiper on the maximum mode – it will help to avoid loss of visibility due to possible emission of water from under a wheel of the overtaken transport. It is desirable to apply such precautionary measures and in case overtake you.
You do not carry out overtaking to rainy weather if the water cloud from under wheels ahead of the going car completely closes the review of a zone of overtaking.
Not to move in a water loop from ahead the going cars, increase a distance and reduce the speed of the movement.
At the movement along sidewalks during a rain or after it at journey through pools reduce the speed that splashes from under wheels of your car did not get on pedestrians.
The movement in night-time
With approach of twilight turn on passing beam of headlights. If your car is painted in dark tone, turn on passing beam a little earlier as against the background of dark asphalt your car is imperceptible and its emergence for drivers of counter transport becomes unexpected.
When driving at night the driver sees only the limited section of the road and for the safe movement special attention is required. It is noticed that with age the person needs big illumination for recognition of a subject. For people 20 years are more senior it doubles every 13 years. Therefore, the driver at 60-year age sees at the night nearly 8 times worse, than in 20-year-old. According to it and the speed of the movement has to decrease in proportion to age of the driver at night.
In case of dazzle by light of headlights of the oncoming car slow down the movement or better stop, without changing a lane, and turn on the alarm light system. Be careful of a message the car blindly – it is very dangerous! Do not forget that for restoration of ability to see after dazzle time to 10 sec. can be required.
If you follow for ahead the going car at night and are not going to overtake it, switch to passing beam and you keep from it at such distance not to disturb his driver light of the headlights.
Movement in the winter
Be very careful on wet or slippery sections of roads – do not allow sharp braking with risk to block wheels that will inevitably lead to a drift. For this purpose drive the car smoothly, without sharp turns. You carry out reduction of speed only by gradual transition to low gears with partial snubbing working brakes. If despite everything the car begins to bring, turn a wheel towards a drift, do not touch a pedal of coupling and a brake and keep calm.
In places of crossing of roads often there is a frost due to pro-slipping of wheels at start-off from the place. Therefore at approach to such places on the dry site begin reduction of speed in advance.
It is difficult to start on the slippery site in the winter. For this purpose include the second or third transfer and, slowly releasing a coupling pedal, smoothly increase engine turns. If you need to execute turn, then after the car began the movement, switch to the first transfer and turn you pass during the operation of the vnatyag engine, without allowing pro-slipping of driving wheels.
In the mountain area
At the movement on rise in due time you pass to the lowest transfers, without allowing operation of the engine "in a tightness" and pulling of the car.
On long descents use the engine in the braking mode with partial use of working brakes. Do not allow descent with the switched-off coupling and use only of working brakes, the WTO will lead to a warming up of brakes and boiling of brake fluid.
Keep in mind that with increase in height temperature of boiling of brake fluid decreases. Boiling of brake fluid in wheel cylinders means full refusal of working brakes – the pedal of a brake fails.
If in mountains you wish to stop on the parking near observation decks or a recreation area, then after long rise do not stop the engine in order to avoid boiling of cooling liquid and fuel in the carburetor at once, and let's work to the engine of 1-2 min. on the minimum turns of idling. It will facilitate the subsequent start of the engine.
As, in the mountain area you keep to the right roads anywhere. Smaller width of the road and a difficult profile of the route require bigger attention and care. On turns give sound and light signals. At a stop on rise or on descent turn out a wheel against the stop that in case of a spontaneous start of motion of the car it rested against a border of the road or other obstacle.
On the slippery road do not begin the movement on the steep slope until ahead the going car reaches its top.
Use of brakes
Learn to brake smoothly, without allowing blocking of wheels. It is even better to use smooth snubbing working brakes with simultaneous transition to low gears. Such reception provides course stability of the car even on slippery sections of roads and, besides, promotes fuel economy, increases a resource of tires and brake slips.
Skilled drivers, irrespective of existence of additional stoplights, expecting a possibility of application of working brakes, previously several times concern a brake pedal before operation of lamps of stoplights to draw the attention of the drivers moving behind it, to be ready to reduction of speed.
The brake way depends on reliability of operation of the most brake system, a condition of a protector of tires, load of the car, a profile of the road, type and a condition of a paving, and also on car speed. The brake way increases in proportion to a speed square i.e. if speed increases twice, the brake way increases four times.
If at serviceable suspension brackets, the adjusted angles of installation of forward wheels and normal pressure of air in tires when braking the car takes away aside and you need to dovorachivat a wheel to keep the direction of the movement, it is necessary to carry out audit of working brakes.
Taking for the first time the wheel of other car, check on the free section of the road work of brakes at speeds of 40, 60 and 80 km/h that is necessary for assessment of a condition of brakes and acquisition of the first skill.
In order to avoid "prikipaniye" of brake shoes to drums do not put the car on the long parking with the switched-on parking brake.
That brake shoes did not freeze to drums after movement along wet roads at sharp fluctuations of temperatures, do not leave the car on the open area with the tightened parking brake, without having dried a brake smooth braking at the movement to the parking.
Sharp accelerations and delays, insufficient or elevated pressure of air, neglect to shift of wheels according to the scheme, the imbalance, driving at the increased speeds on the uncomfortable roads, incorrectly established corners of forward wheels substantially reduce service life of tires. On worn-out tires the movement becomes dangerous as during a rain the protector at a certain speed does not manage to pass water, the tire runs into a water wedge which drives ahead of itself(himself), and there occurs loss of coupling with the road (effect of hydroplaning).
Driving of the car equipped with the automatic transmission
When driving the car equipped with the automatic transmission it is necessary to pay attention to the following features:
At dispersal of the car the engine will work with the raised turns that is normal and typical for automatic transmission.
For bystry increase in speed of the movement it is necessary to press an accelerator pedal against the stop and some time to hold it in this situation. Increase in speed of the engine and decrease in transfer number in the transmission will quickly increase the speed of the movement of the car.
If pressure upon a pedal of an accelerator decreases, turns of the engine will decrease irrespective of the speed of the movement. This normal phenomenon leading to considerable economy of fuel.